Resources for Remanufacturing
Papers and References from Universities and Laboratories to support your Remanufacturing thought.
G-SCOP is a multidisciplinary laboratory which has been created to meet the scientific challenges imposed by the ongoing changes within the industrial world. The scope of the laboratory goes from the products conception to the production systems management and is based on strong skills in optimisation. The creation of the G-SCOP laboratory is, in Grenoble, the culmination point of a very long history of scientific breakthroughs and collaborations in the field of production systems, product design and operational research.
The industrial world is changing (relocation movements, services development, "products-services" systems, etc,.). We must stress the importance of the increasing notion of sustainable development. It is thus essential to consider the conditions for sustainable growth and to question the companies' places and levers of economic performance. This performance is based on the companies' ability to innovate in products and services but also on their ability to invent new industrial organisations (which would be reactive and flexible despite their complexity). These questions led us to identify the following scientific challenges.
Contact Remanufacturing : Peggy ZWOLINSKI
A REMANUFACTURING PROCESS LIBRARY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SIMULATIONS
'Closed loop' end-of-life strategies such as remanufacturing must be applied to create eco-efficient products. Remanufacturing may be a key element in reducing the environmental impact of products but this remains to be proved. The aim of this study is to help designers evaluate the environmental impacts of their remanufacturing process during the design phase. The first task is to identify, list and classify the various remanufacturing processes (disassembly, cleaning, sorting and controlling, reconditioning, reassembly) by type of process and then estimate the environmental impact for each process. These processes are then formalized by characterization and organised in a database. Using a simulator, the different processes can be aggregated to assess the environmental impacts of a remanufacturing line. An example is presented in the last part of this paper to illustrate the proposal.
Keywords: Remanufacturing process, environmental impact, simulator, Life Cycle Assessment
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT REMANUFACTURING CONSTRAINTS DURING THE DESIGN PROCESS
The purpose of this study was to identify product profiles based on design criteria to structure rules and indicators that designers will use during the conceptual design phase. For the products profiles definition 8 categories of design criteria were identified based on a survey of about thirty products successfully remanufactured. Then, we have developed the tool REPRO2 (REmanufacturig with PROducts PROfiles) that should lead to a real integrated design of remanufacturable products. Indeed, with this tool, designers at the beginning of their design project can use products profiles. It gives specific information to improve the internal technical definition of the product under study from a remanufacturing point of view.
Keywords: Remanufacturing products profiles
This study considered the factors affecting the success of a remanufacturing operation. A wide range of products that are already successfully remanufactured were analysed. This led to the development of 11 "Remanufacturable Product Profiles" and the creation of the Repro² software. The objective is to give designers the possibility to compare the product being developed with the 11 product profiles, to identify which profile best matches the profile of their product, and then to identify which aspects of the design the designer should concentrate their efforts.
The research activities performed at the Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Systèmes Mécaniques et des Matériaux (LISMMA) deal with the engineering of mechanical systems. They have a multidisciplinary character, covering mechanical engineering, mechanics, mechatronics and industrial engineering. The activities of LISMMA deal with: materials science, mechanical design (partnership with Dassault systèmes for the development of CATIA), supply chain, tribology (science of the mechanisms of friction, lubrication, and wear of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion) and vibro-acoustics (vibrations, noise, etc.)
Teacher-researchers and technical staff are closely involved in collaborative projects (ANR, FUI, European Community...) with academic laboratories (Supélec, École Centrale Paris, UTC, ENSEA...), research organisations (CNRS, CEA, IFPEN...), competitiveness clusters (AsTECH, Mov’eo, System@tic, Mer Paca, Pegase...) and industrial partners (Dassault Systèmes, EADS, Thales, Safran, Renault, PSA, Valeo...)
Contact Remanufacturing : Dominique MILLET
HOW TO EXPLORE SENARII OF MULTIPLE UPGRADE CYCLES FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT INNOVATION: THE "UPGRADE CYCLE EXPLORER" TOOL
The approach developed in this work aims to integrate the potentials of remanufacturing as early as possible in the design process in order to reap the greatest benefits in both economic and environmental dimensions. This project includes a study of the designs of modular architecture, Reverse Supply Chain processes and also of the problem of dimensioning cycles for multiple use and upgrading possibilities (or functional enrichment).
This article details the third study on upgrade cycles. After presenting the specific context of the work in section 1, we define and identify the parameters of the upgrade cycles (section 2) in order to show the value of an uncoupled approach that enables a thorough exploration and evaluation of possible upgrade scenarios (section 3). Section 4 illustrates the benefits of a tool which simulates the upgrade cycles and the value of such a tool for guiding a more rigorous company strategy (section 4) towards PSS (Product Service System) through an experiment conducted with an industrial leader in franking machines.
Keywords: Remanufacturing, Ecodesign, Number of cycles, Attractiveness, Upgrade, Physical LifeTime, franking machines
DESIGN FOR REMANUFACTURING: WHAT PERFORMANCES CAN BE EXPECTED?
The objective of this report is to supply first of all a state of the art on the consideration of the remanufacturing on one hand in the ecodesign methods and on the other hand in the reverse supply chain management (RSC). These states of the art show that the available methods of ecodesign take into account little the potentialities of the remanufacturing notably because of the difficulty considering products with multiple life cycles (notion of upgradability). They show on the other hand that the RSC management and the ecodesign methods are considered rarely simultaneously. A case study conducted on an espresso machine completes these states of the art to accentuate the various dimensions of the remanufacturing problem. All these elements reveal the necessity of giving to the design team, a method helping to develop new concepts of remanufacturable systems.
Keywords: Eco-Design, Remanufacturing, LCA, Economic Assessment, DfX, RSC (Reverse Supply Chain)
MODIFYING MODULE BOUNDARIES TO DESIGN REMANUFACTURABLE PRODUCTS: THE MODULAR GROUPING EXPLORER TOOL
The method proposed in this paper makes it possible to identify remanufacturable and recyclable modules using criteria of cost and environmental impact; the method groups together remanufacturable and recyclable modules using criteria of reliability and obsolescence, and redefines the perimeters of such modules. This approach is tested on a case study (expresso machine); the study highlights the advantages of such an approach (the exhaustive exploration of product architectures while redefining module frontiers) as well as its limitations.
Keywords: Lifecycle design; modular design; remanufacturing; eco-design tool
CONDITIONS OF EMERGENCE OF OEM'S REVERSE SUPPLY CHAINS
Although academic research and some industrial experiences show that a reverse supply chain (RSC) based on remanufacturing offers the possibility to transform the constraint of environmental regulations on product recovery into an opportunity for value creation, few companies have managed to set up their own RSCs. Five research propositions on the condition of emergence of RSCs follow from a literature review and are applied to a case study from a global player in the electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) industry. The findings support the importance of an integrated approach for the design and implementation of a RSC. This integrated approach responds to the traditional questions of OEMs, ‘Why’ set up a RSC?; ‘What’ main conditions must be taken into account in the three segments of a RSC (procurement, production, and distribution)?; and ‘How’ can these conditions be satisfied?
Keywords: Remanufacturing; Reverse supply chain; Conditions of emergence
‘Environment’ is a key strategic theme at Cranfield. We have been contributing to the ‘green economy’ for over 40 years with deep expertise in environmental governance and sustainability, natural resource management, agriculture and land management, energy and the environment, environmental engineering for the treatment of water, wastes and contaminated soils and environmental health and food.
DEVELOP A COST MODEL TO EVALUATE THE ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF REMANUFACTURING BASED ON SPECIFIC TECHNIQUE
Remanufacturing is a process of recovering used products to a like-new condition. It can potentially achieve considerable economic, environmental and social benefits in many applications. However, its economic benefit varies for different products and remanufacturing processes. This research aims to develop a framework and cost model to quantitatively evaluate the benefits of remanufacturing techniques to assist the decision making on end-of-life strategies. Additive manufacturing-based remanufacturing process has been modelled first, then cost breakdown structure for the process has been created, and the cost model has been developed. Validation of the cost model has been conducted based on expert judgement, and a case study has been carried out by using the developed cost model to compare the benefit of remanufacturing a specified component or making a new one.
Keywords: End of life; Remanufacturing; Product recovery; Cost estimation; Cost engineering; Economic benefit analysis
The divison of Manufacturing Engineering conducts research in four main areas:
- development and operation of equipment, flexible automation and industrial robotics,
- development and operation of systems,
- product development and design for different types of manufacturing,
- development of sustainable manufacturing, including function sales and remanufacturing.
Sustainable manufacturing is a higher-level requirement for all research in industrial manufacturing, but the main area 4 has a major focus specifically on this. Furthermore, research in the first three main areas can all contribute to develop sustainable manufacturing.
The interaction between the design of the manufacturing processes/systems and product design is a very important area. We work in areas such as: Design for Assembly, Design for Manufacturing, Design for Remanufacturing, Design for Disassembly and Design for Serviceability.
Contact Remanufacturing: Erik Sundin
UNDERSTANDING OF A PRODUCT/SERVICE SYSTEM DESIGN: A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO SUPPORT DESIGN FOR REMANUFACTURING
A product/service system (PSS) facilitates remanufacturing and thus is the article’s subject. This article presents a first quantitative analysis, through a descriptive study, of the details of a PSS design case. To do so, an example of PSS design was conducted using a real offering in the marketplace, and this design episode was analyzed through protocol analysis developed further by the authors. The results of the analysis include reasonable hypotheses: PSS design begins with needs by and value for a customer, addresses primarily life cycle activities for solutions, and ends back with value. In addition, life cycle activities, which accounted for about 30% of the episode, were found to be given a central role within PSS design. Furthermore, reasoning about problems, which spent more than 30% of the design, seems to be a new and important type of activity in PSS design as compared to physical product design. This article contributes to greater understanding of PSS design process in quantitative terms and thus to developing effective support for PSS design. Knowledge about PSS enables the understanding of remanufacturing with a more holistic perspective and thus creating an opportunity for better optimization of remanufacturers’ activities.
Keywords: Design for remanufacturing; Protocol analysis; Design process; Life cycle activity
PRODUCT AND PROCESS DESIGN FOR SUCCESSFUL REMANUFACTURING
In this dissertation, a generic remanufacturing process is described with all included steps that are needed to restore the products to useful life. In order to make the remanufacturing process more efficient, the products need to be adapted for the process.
Therefore, the preferable products properties facilitating each step in the generic remanufacturing process have been identified. A matrix (RemPro) was created to illustrate the relation between each and every generic remanufacturing step and the préférable product properties.
Case studies on: 24 Hour Toner Services - MKG Clearprint - Cummins OER - FUJI Film - Scania CV AB - Electrolux AB
Keywords: Study cases ; Sweden
ON REMANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
The first issue discussed in this dissertation is the drivers that make companies interested in remanufacturing products in the first place. The conclusion is that the general drivers are profit, company policy and the environmental drivers. In a general sense, the profit motivation is the most prevalent business driver, but still there are situations where this motivation is secondary to policy and environmental drivers.
Secondly, the need to balance the supply of returned products with the demand for remanufactured products shows that the possible remanufacturing volumes for a product are dependent on the shape of the supply and demand distributions. By using a product life cycle perspective, the supply and demand situations can be foreseen and support is given on possible strategies in these different supply and demand situations.
Thirdly, how used products are gathered from customers is categorised by seven different customer relationship types. These types all have different effects on the remanufacturing system, and the characteristics of these relationships are disused in detail.
Keywords : Drivers ; supply/demand strategies ; customer relationships
The department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management (DMEM) is a vibrant and active research community. We sit in the top ten of all UK universities in research performance power rankings, for both business and management studies as well as mechanical, aeronautical and manufacturing engineering.
Our research is centred on the vision of 'Delivering Total Engineering'. We investigate processes, systems and technology to support and enable engineering from concept to remanufacture. Our vision embodies the university ethos of ‘useful learning’ through practical application of research and close collaboration with industrial partners.
Our research takes place through a number of world-class research centres and groups which sit within the Advanced Design and Manufacturing Hub, a cohesive and integrating framework for advanced manufacturing research across the Department and elsewhere in the Faculty and University.
We focus on five key research themes: creativity and innovation, materials, operations, sustainability and technology.
Contact: Winifred Ijowah
DESIGN FOR REMANUFACTURING IN CHINA: A CASE STUDY OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
This paper presents the findings from a literature review and case study research conducted as a small part of the Globally Recoverable and Eco-friendly E-equipment Network with Distributed Information Service Management (GREENet) project. The GREENet project aims to share knowledge and expertise in e-waste treatment across Europe (in this case, the UK) and China. The focus of this particular study was upon ‘design for remanufacture’ and e-waste in China: as a remanufacturing industry begins to emerge, are Chinese original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) prepared to design more remanufacturable products and could electrical and electronic products become a part of this industry? Findings presented in this paper suggest that design for remanufacture could become more relevant to Chinese OEMs in the near future, as environmental legislation becomes increasingly stringent and a government remanufacturing pilot scheme expands. However, findings from case studies of Chinese e-waste recyclers would suggest that electrical and electronic products are not presently highly suited to the remanufacturing process.
Keywords: E-waste; Design for remanufacture; Recycling; China
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO REMANUFACTURING: MODEL OF A REMANUFACTURING SYSTEM
Remanufacturing is the process of rebuilding used products that ensures that the quality of remanufactured products is equivalent to that of new ones. Although the theme is gaining ground, it is still little explored due to lack of knowledge, the difficulty of visualizing it systemically, and implementing it effectively. Few models treat remanufacturing as a system. Most of the studies still treated remanufacturing as an isolated process, preventing it from being seen in an integrated manner. Therefore, the aim of this work is to organize the knowledge about remanufacturing, offering a vision of remanufacturing system and contributing to an integrated view about the theme. The methodology employed was a literature review, adopting the General Theory of Systems to characterize the remanufacturing system. This work consolidates and organizes the elements of this system, enabling a better understanding of remanufacturing and assisting companies in adopting the concept.
Keywords: The Remanufacturing Process, Integrated view
A COST MODEL FOR OPTIMIZING THE TAKE BACK PHASE OF USED PRODUCT RECOVERY
Taking back the end-of-life products from customers can be made profitable by optimizing the combination of advertising, financial benefits for the customer, and ease of delivery (product transport). In this paper we present a detailed modeling framework developed for the cost benefit analysis of the take back process. This model includes many aspects that have not been modeled before, including financial incentives in the form of discounts, as well as transportation and advertisement costs. In this model customers are motivated to return their used products with financial incentives in the forms of cash and discounts for the purchase of new products. Cost and revenue allocation between take back and new product sale is discussed and modeled. The frequency, method and cost of advertisement are also addressed. The convenience of transportation method and the transportation costs are included in the model as well. The effects of the type and amount of financial incentives, frequency and method of advertisement, and method of transportation on the product return rate and the net profit of take back were formulated and studied. The application of the model for determining the optimum strategies (operational levels) and predicting the maximum net profit of the take back process was demonstrated through a practical, but hypothetical, example.
Keywords: Take Back; Product Acquisition; Remanufacturing; Modeling; Cost Benefit Analysis
AN ANALYSIS OF REMANUFACTURING PRACTICES IN JAPAN
This study presents case studies of selected remanufacturing operations in Japan. It investigates Japanese companies' motives and incentives for remanufacturing, clarifies the requirements and obstacles facing remanufacturers, itemizes what measures companies take to address them, and discusses the influence of Japanese laws related to remanufacturing.
Keywords: Practices in Japan; Business obstacles, Service